Microscopic survey of recent image sensors

Last year through cooperation with ChipMod studio, we obtained multiple die shot images of recent Sony sensors. And in this post we’re going to show some of them. Most of our device identification is based on teardown from various reliable source, such as Chipworks and manufacture repair manual. Or from direct microscopic imaging. For inference, it has to be relied on die signature such as number of bond pad and their relative location, or referred as “bond pad signature”.

 

Let’s begin. The first one, IMX038AQE from Pentax K-x/K-r. It’s the same silicon die as the AQQ variant seen in Nikon D90 and D5000 DSLR.

SONY and device marking code IMX038

Layer number during photolithography of Bayer pattern and on chip lens (OCL)

Factory die level testing left probe scratch on the test pad

Next, let’s take a look at the IMX071AQQ from D5100.

No device marking was found on the die except “SONY”

Bayer layer mark. PAC appears to be Photo Activated Chemical based on patents

Factory test pads

Finally we have the IMX094AQP from D800/D800E. The first image shows the alignment mark near the die boundary. It’s interesting that Nikon customized the cover glass to be a quartz anti-moiré layer. As advertised by Nikon, both D800 and E variant included the vertical separation glass. The glass appeared to be specially AR coated only in the image area, not on the whole plate level. We had never seen this on other Sony sensor, not even on IMX128.

Alignment marks shows duplicated image in vertical direction

Edge of the multilayer AR coating shows uneven gradient

Similar to 071, Sony did not imprint the device marking in the corner. However, I found a pair of mask number related to this device. MM094L and MM094R on the long edge of the silicon die. This pairs of mark appears on Sony full frame sensors only. We later found the pair on IMX235 and IMX128 as well. Based on their location, I realized that it could be a mask code for a stitching pair. A full frame sensor was just too big to fit in the circle of stepper imaging field of view. Thus to make a full sensor, a pair of mask has to be used just like taking your panorama. This was the case for IMX028 when I discovered the non-uniformity on its flat field image.

The microscope I had access to has a 40x objective. However its working distance is too short to prevent direct imaging through the sensor cover glass. With the permission and request by ChipMod studio, I’ll show some more enlarged image onto the pixels themselves.

One interesting sensor was the X-pro1 CMOS harboring a Sony marking code. Again no actual device code.

Xpro-1 IMX165

Xpro-1 IMX165

The corner of Fujifilm X-trans array

Through the central opening on the back of PCB, the package marking register X165A?. The second character is presumably a R or P or F.  It’s possibly IMX165AFE based on IC searching where many distributer had an entry on their listing. Sony usually used the second letter to denote Bayer type, with Q for RGB Bayer and L for mono. F would naturally mean a different pattern like X-trans. The die itself, appears to be the same as the 16MP IMX095 found in Sony NEX F3 and Pentax K-01.

Fujifilm CMOS PCB

IMX095AQE-K-01

Pentax K-01 uses CLCC version IMX095AQE

It’s possible that Sony fixed the underlying circuit, only altering the last few steps in their back end of line (BEOL) to pattern a different color filter array. This would significantly reduces cost by avoiding making a new sensor. So the question is, when will we see a native monochromatic CMOS in APS-C or larger format?

Next we will have a big one, the IMX235AQR in the Sony A7S, which harbors a 12MP full frame at around 8.5um pixel pitch. ChipMod obtained the following image during mono chip mode. In essence, scraping away the microlens and Bayer layer. The pixel opening is super wide given 55% area fill factor on the metal three layer.

50x objective view of the Metal 3 layer after Bayer removal

IMX235

The microlens array appears to shift towards top left of pixel boundary

We also surveyed the IMX183 BSI sensor. Surprisingly, BSI sensor also has a grid on the light sensitive side. After some literature search, the presence of this grid could reduce color crosstalk between adjacent pixels. This is because on BSI sensor light can easily pass to the collecting well in the next pixel when fill factor gets larger and incident angle gets smaller. It is also the reason to employ microlens array to focus light rays on to the pixel center.

IMX183

IMX183 BSI pixel boundary grid

At the end, we take a look at the old school interline CCDs. ICX413 in Pentax K-100.

And ICX493 using rotated horizontal-vertical transfer registers.

 

ICX493 employed four phase CCD, with two pixels covering a period. Thus readout is interlined. Charge on odd and even columns are transferred upward then right or downward and left to their respective HCCD (organized vertically) on each side for read out. Then the same is repeated for interline rows.

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